Designing Ultra-low-power Cardiac Pacemaker with Quantum Cellular Automation Technology

  • Mojdeh Mahdavi Department of Electronics, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Amin Amiri Malek Ashtar University of Technology
Keywords: Pacemaker, Quantum Cellular Automata, QCAdesigner, Simulation


The heartbeat is triggered by a sinoatrial node in the heart. If the sinoatrial node is disrupted for any reason or if there is a problem with the heart's electrical signal path, the heart rate will decrease or become impaired; in which case the cardiac pacemaker could control the heart function. The pacemaker is an electrical stimulator that causes the heart to expand and contract and triggers pulses to the heart when needed or permanently. Since the pacemaker is placed inside the patient's body, it should be designed based on the minimum power consumption. Besides, frequency adjustment in this device is necessary to regulate heart rate in a variety of arrhythmias. In this paper, logic cells of quantum cellular automata are utilized to design a pulse generator circuit in a heart oscillator, where power consumption and dimensions are minimal. An important feature of the proposed circuit is the ability to adjust the output pulse frequency. The efficiency of this circuit has been evaluated using QCAdesigner simulator and desirable results have been obtained in terms of power consumption level. The simulation results also show very low power consumption for the designed circuit.


[1] Lombardi, F., ET AL., “Design and test of digital circuits by Quantum Dot Cellular Automata,” Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 2007.
[2] Rezaei, A., “Design and test of new robust QCA Sequential circuits,” Int. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol, vol. 4, pp. 297–306, Apr. 2018.
[3] Al-Shafi, A., ET AL., “Power analysis dataset for QCA based multiplexer circuits,” Int. J. Nanoele. Elsevier, vol. 1, pp. 593–596, 2017.
[4] Haddad, A.P, Wouter, A., “Ultra Low-Power Biomedical Signal Processing,” Int. J. Springer, ACSP, vol. 2, pp. 290–310, 2009.
[5] Nathan, A., ET AL., “A model driven approach for cardiac pacemaker design using a PRET processor,” Int. Symp. On Real-Time Distributed Computing, pp. 168–175, 2017.
[6] Dwivdi, O., ET AL., “Design and Implementation of programmable Cardiac Pacemaker Using VHDL,” Int. J. Eng. Research and Applications, vol. 5, pp. 155–158, 2015.
[8] Berarzadeh, M., ET AL., “A novel low power Exclusive-OR via cell level-based design function in quantum cellular automata,” Int. J. Comput Electron., vol. 5, pp. 875–882, 2017.
[9] Haddad, A.P, ET AL., “The history of cardiac pacemakers: an electronics perspective,” Int. J. IEEE Eng. in Medicine and Biology, vol. 1, pp. 38–48, 2006.
[10] Biswal, B., “ECG signal analysis using modified S-transform” Int. J. Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 2, pp. 68–72, 2016.
[11] Xie, Sh., ET AL., “Non-invasive reconstruction of dynamic myocardial trans membrane potential with graph-based total variation constraints,” Int. J. Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 6, pp. 181–186, 2019.
[12] Roopa, T., ET AL, “Implementation of a Pacemaker for Biomedical Application” Int. J. Science and Research, vol. 6, pp. 2780–2785, 2014.
[13] Zhiran, Y., ET AL. “A Battery- and Leadless Heart-Worn Pacemaker Strategy” Int. J. Adv. Funct. Mater. , 2020 (doi: 10.1002/adfm.202000477)
[14] Wong, L., ET AL., “A Very Low-Power CMOS Mixed-Signal IC for Implantable Pacemaker Applications, ” IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS., vol. 12, pp. 2446–2456, 2004.
[15] Eisa, S., ET AL. “Design and Analysis of a Low Power UWB Pulse Generators,” Int. J. Computer and Electrical Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 244–247, 2014.
[16] Chabi, A., ET AL. “Towards ultra-efficient QCA reversible circuits” Int. J. Microprocessors and Microsystems. vol. 1, pp. 127–138, 2017.
[17] Gassoumi, I., ET AL. “An Ultra-Low Power Parity Generator Circuit Based on QCA Technology” Int. J. Electrical and Computer Engineering. 2019 (
[18] Martinez, G.A., “External Pacemaker of Diagnose and Research, Experience in Military Hospital Center Mexico” Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, 2007.
[19] on QCADesigner 2.0.3.
How to Cite
Mahdavi, M., & Amiri, M. A. (2021). Designing Ultra-low-power Cardiac Pacemaker with Quantum Cellular Automation Technology. Majlesi Journal of Telecommunication Devices, 10(3), 105-110.