Investigation on Electromagnetic Properties of PLA/Carbon/Copper Antennas for Breast Cancer Detection
Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women in the globe. Microwave imaging has low power and longer wavelength signals to receive information about breast tissues and guarantees a safer and more accurate modality for regular breast control. So, the antenna is a crucial element in the microwave imaging system. This study involves analysis of the simulation results of the linear and planar microstrip array antennas in terms of high gain. In the series antenna design stage, the antenna models with high gain and directional radiation are aimed. 1x4 and 2x2 array antenna models are prepared with PLA/Carbon insulating material. Array antennas, three-dimensional full-wave electromagnetic structure analysis are designed using the CST (Computer Simulation Technology) Microwave Studio program. In the design phase, the transmission line losses of the array antennas are tried to be optimized by using T-junction and Wilkinson power divider techniques and impedance matching is realized. Also, the redundant areas in the turns are removed to minimize the undesirable reflections in the transmission line and to reduce the capacitive loading. Since the 1x4 array antenna performs better than the 2x2 array antenna, it was preferred for breast cancer simulation.
 A. M. Hassan and M. El-Shenawee, “Review of electromagnetic techniques for breast cancer detection,” IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng., pp. 103–118, 2011, doi: 10.1109/RBME.2011.2169780.
 M. Xu, P. Thulasiraman, and S. Noghanian, “Microwave tomography for breast cancer detection on cell broadband engine processors,” J. Parallel Distrib. Comput., vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 1106–1116, 2011.
 A. Santorelli and M. Popović, “SAR distribution in microwave breast screening: Results with TWTLTLA wideband antenna,” in Proceedings of the 2011 7th International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, ISSNIP 2011, 2011, pp. 11–16, doi: 10.1109/ISSNIP.2011.6146531.
 A. Lazaro, D. Girbau, and R. Villarino, “Simulated and experimental wavelet-based detection of breast tumor using a UWB radar,” in European Microwave Week 2010, EuMW2010: Connecting the World, Conference Proceedings - European Microwave Conference, EuMC 2010, 2010, pp. 373–376.
 D. Zhang and A. Mase, “Ultrashort-pulse radar system for breast cancer detection experiment: Imaging in frequency band,” in 2011 China-Japan Joint Microwave Conference, 2011, pp. 1–3.
 F. Delbary, M. Brignone, G. Bozza, R. Aramini, and M. Piana, “A visualization method for breast cancer detection using microwaves,” SIAM J. Appl. Math., vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 2509–2533, 2010.
 Y. Deng and X. Liu, “Electromagnetic imaging methods for nondestructive evaluation applications,” Sensors, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 11774–11808, 2011.
 J. J. Golezani, M. Abbak, and I. Akduman, “A novel compact wideband directional monopole antenna for use in radar applications,” 2012.
 M. H. Bah, J. Hong, and D. A. Jamro, “Ground slotted monopole antenna design for microwave breast cancer detection based on time reversal MUSIC,” Prog. Electromagn. Res., vol. 59, pp. 117–126, 2015.
 A. G. Andukar, R. Deshmukh, and B. Bansod, “A review on imaging techniques in food safety and its advancements,” Int. J. Adv. Res. Electr. Electron. Instrum. Eng., vol. 5, pp. 980–983, 2016.
 E. A. Jiya, N. S. N. Anwar, and M. Z. Abdullah, “Detection of cracks in concrete structure using microwave imaging technique,” Int. J. Microw. Sci. Technol., vol. 2016, 2016.
 A. R. Çelik, M. B. Kurt, and S. Helhel, “An overview of electromagnetic methods for breast cancer detection and a novel antenna design for microwave imaging,” 2017.
 A. M. Abbosh, “Directive antenna for ultrawideband medical imaging systems,” Int. J. Antennas Propag., vol. 2008, 2008, doi: 10.1155/2008/854012.
 I. Ünal, B. Türetken, and C. Canbay, “Spherical Conformal Bow-Tie Antenna for Ultra-Wide Band Microwave Imaging of Breast Cancer Tumor.,” Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. J., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 124–133, 2008.
 R. Çalışkan, S. S. Gültekin, D. Uzer, and Ö. Dündar, “A microstrip patch antenna design for breast cancer detection,” Procedia-Social Behav. Sci., 2015.
 X. Xiao and T. Kikkawa, “Influence of the organism interface on the breast cancer detection by UWB,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 255, no. 2, pp. 597–599, 2008.
 H. Zhang, R. Zhou, Z. Wu, H. Xin, and R. W. Ziolkowski, “Designs of ultra wideband (UWB) printed elliptical monopole antennas with slots,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 466–471, 2010.
 H. Zhang, “Microwave imaging for ultra-wideband antenna based cancer detection,” The University of Edinburgh, South Bridge, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2014.
 C.-F. Tseng, C.-L. Huang, and C.-H. Hsu, “Microstrip-fed monopole antenna with a shorted parasitic element for wideband application,” Prog. Electromagn. Res., vol. 7, pp. 115–125, 2009.
 A. R. Celik, M. B. Kurt, and S. Helhel, “Design of an elliptical planar monopole antenna for using in radar-based and ultra-wideband microwave imaging system,” Int. Res. J. Eng. Technol., vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1978–1983, 2017.
 C. A. Balanis, Antennas Third Edition. 2005.
 R. Garg, P. Bhartia, I. J. Bahl, and A. Ittipiboon, Microstrip antenna design handbook. Artech House Antennas and Propagation Library, 2001.
 G. Kumar and K. P. Ray, Broadband microstrip antennas. Artech house, 2003.
 D. M. Pozar and D. H. Schaubert, Microwave Antennas:The Analysis and Design of Microstrip Antennas and Arrays. 1995.
 G. Hill, “A practical guide to the design of microstrip antenna arrays,” Microw. J., 2001.
 M. Shareef and M. V Krishnaraj, “Lectotypification of" Garcinia imberti" Bourd.(Clusiaceae),” Taiwania, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 148–149, 2015.
 O. Hazila, S. A. Aljunid, F. Malek, and A. Sahadah, “Performance comparison between rectangular and circular patch antenna array,” 2010.
 M. S. R. M. Shah et al., “Design of 1× 2, 1× 4, and 2× 2 Dual Polarization Microstrip Array Antenna,” 2008.
 K. R. Sipora, K. J. S. Lorraine, and D. V. Ratnam, “Design of Inset-Fed Ceramic Patch Array Antenna for Pseudolite Based Positioning Applications,” Int. J. Innov. Res. Dev., vol. 3, no. 11, 2014.
 M. A. Matin and A. I. Sayeed, “A design rule for inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch antenna,” WSEAS Trans. Commun., vol. 9, no. 1, 2010.
 J. R. James and P. S. Hall, “Handbook of microstrip antennas,” Instution Eng. Technol. 2. Ed., p. 1350, 1998.
 C. S. T. M. Studio, “URL http://www. cst. com/Content/Products/MWS,” Overview. aspx. .
 V. Rajeshree, “Design of array antenna for centric communication/Rajeshree Vejasegaran,” University of Malaya Kuala Lumpur, 2017.
 A. Slimani, S. D. Bennani, A. El Alami, and M. Amellal, “Gain and bandwidth enhancement of New Planar microstrip array antennas geometry for C band weather radar applications,” Int. J. Microw. Wirel. Technol., pp. 1139–1146, 2017.
 R. J. P. Douville and D. S. James, “Experimental study of symmetric microstrip bends and their compensation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 175–182, 1978.
 E. Porter, “Microwave breast tumor detection: Simulation and design of experiments with tissue phantoms,” 2010.
 T. Sabapathy, M. F. Jamlos, R. B. Ahmad, M. Jusoh, M. I. Jais, and M. R. Kamarudin, “Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 30, 189–199, 2012,” Prog. Electromagn. Res., vol. 30, 2012.