Reducing the Cogging Torque of BLDC Motors with the Proposed Firefly Optimization Algorithm

  • Navid Moshtaghi Yazdani Department of Electrical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
  • Mohammad Hasan Olyaei Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Sadjad University of Technology, Mashhad, Iran
Keywords: BLDC Motor, Mechanical Vibrations, Cogging Torque, Optimization


The mechanical vibration of BLDC Motors during the rotation of the rotor due to torque ripple and radial forces, makes them difficult to use. Thus, in this paper, the factors affecting this problem, such as the combination of the number of poles and slots, shape of the magnet and magnetization method, slot opening in the stator laminations, geometric symmetry of the rotor and air-gap are analyzed for three different structures (integer-slot with symmetric air-gap, fractional-slot with symmetric air-gap and fractional-slot with asymmetric air-gap) of BLDC Motors using finite-element (FE) analysis. Based on the analysis results, the fractional-slot motor with symmetric winding is chosen as a suitable structure with minimum mechanical vibration level. Finally, in order to reduce the cogging torque, the Proposed Firefly Algorithm is used to optimize the pole arc and slot opening.


[1] Hanselman, C., Brushless Permanent magnet motor design, Mc Graw-Hil Publishing, 1994.
[2] Jang, G.H., Yoon, J.W., “The characterization of magnetic force and torque in a BLDC motor”, Asia-Pacific Vibration Conference 97, November, 1997.
[3] Jang, G.H., Chang, J.H., “Finite element analysis of an electromechanical field of a BLDC motor consideration speed control and mechanical flexibility”, IEEE transaction on Magnetics, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 945-948, 2002.
[4] Krishnan, R., Permanent magnet synchronous and brushless DC motor drive, CRC Publishing, 2009.
[5] Nekoubin, A., “Design a single-phase BLDC motor and finite element analysis of stator slots structure effects on the efficiency”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 741-748, 2011.
[6] Jang, S., Cho, H., Choi, S., “Design and analysis of a high speed brushless DC motor for centrifugal compressor”, IEEE Trans. on Magnetic, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 2573-2575, 2007.
[7] Vivier, S, Gillon, F., Brochet, P, “Optimization derived from experimental design method and their application to the design of a brushless direct current motor”, IEEE Trans. on Magnetic, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 3622-3626, 2007.
[8] Upadhyay, P.R., Rajagopal, K.R., “Genetic algorithm based design optimization of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, No. 10, pp. 516–519, 2005.
[9] Hwang, C.C., “Design and analysis of a brushless DC motor for applications in robotics,” Electric Power Applications, Vol. 6, pp. 385-389, 2012.
[10] Lai, S.H. (2006),“ Design optimization of a slot less brushless permanent magnet DC motor with helically-wound laminations for underwater rim-driven thrusters,” Ph.D. thesis. England :University of Southampton.
[11] Markovic, M. and Perriard, Y. (2006),“ Simplified design methodology for a slot less brushless DC motor,” IEEE Trans Magn, 42, pp 3842–3846.
[12] Rahideh, A. and Korakianitis, T. and Ruiz, P. and Keeble, T. and Rothman, M.T. (2010),“ Optimal brushless DC motor design using genetic algorithms,” J Magn Magn Mater, 322, pp 3680–3687.
[13] Shabanian, A. and Amini Poustchi Tousiwas, A. and Pourmandi, M. and Khormali, A. and Ataei, A. (2015),“ Optimization of brushless direct current motor design using an intelligent technique,” ISA Transactions, 57, pp 311–321.
[14] Upadhyay, P.R. and Rajagopal, K.R. (2005),“ Genetic algorithm based design optimization of a permanent magnet brushless DC motor,” J Appl Phys, 97, pp 10Q516.
[15] Lakshmikanth. S, Natraj. K.R and Rekha. K.R,Noise and Vibration Reduction in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors ,A Review, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), vol.2, no.3, (2012) 405 416.
[16] D.C.Hanselman,Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design, 2rdedition, New York, McGraw Hill 2003.
[17] N.Bianch, S.Bolognani, Design techniques for reducing the cogging torque in surface-mounted PM motors, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38, no. 5, (2002) 1259–1265.
[18] A.Rezig and M.Mekideche, Effect of rotor eccentricity faults on noise generation in permanent magnet synchronous motors, Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, Vol. 15,( 2010) 117-132.
[19] Sayadi, M. K.; Ramezanian, R.; Ghaffari-Nasb, N.; “A discrete firefly meta-heuristic with local search for make span minimization in permutation flow shop scheduling problems”, International Journal of Industrial Engineering Computations, PP. 1-10, 2010.
[20] Yang, X. S.;”Firefly algorithm in:research and،. Levy flight and global optimization”، M. Petridis) Springer London; development in intelligent system XXVI(Eds M . bramer R pp. 209-218, 2010.
[21] Tahereh Hassanzadeh; Mohammad Reza Meybodi; Fariborz MahmoudiThe , “An improved Firefly Algorithm for optimization in static environment”Fifth Iran Data Mining Conference / IDMC 2011.
[22] Nebojsa Bacanin, Milan Tuba, Firefly algorithm for cardinality constrained mean-variance portfolio optimization problem with entropy diversity constraint, Scientific World J. 2014 (2014).
How to Cite
Moshtaghi Yazdani, N., & Olyaei, M. H. (2020). Reducing the Cogging Torque of BLDC Motors with the Proposed Firefly Optimization Algorithm. Majlesi Journal of Mechatronic Systems, 9(3), 33-42. Retrieved from