The Impact of Various Components of Multi-Grounded Three-phase Four-wire Distribution Systems on Neutral Wire Current
This contribution is aimed at representing the characteristics of neutral wire and also obtaining an optimal grounding resistance in different situations in a three-phase four-wire distribution network. To this end, various effects of the system components have been investigated on neutral wire characteristics and grounding system. On the other hand, it is concluded that, in addition to system imbalance, there are other determinative factors in which the neutral wire and grounding system have irregular characteristics. These factors include: transformer type and capacitor bank failure. The investigation also achieved an optimized grounding resistance for grounding system for different types of transformers.
 T. H. Chen, M. S. Chen, T. Inoue, P. Kotas, and E. A. Chebli, “Distribution system power flow analysis—a rigid approach,” IEEE Trans.Power Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 1146–1152, July 1991.
 K. A. Birt, J. J. Graffy and J. D. McDonald, “Three-phase load flow program,” IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 95, No. 1, pp. 59–65, Jan. 1976.
 B. K. Chen, M. S. Chen, R. R. Shoults, and C. C. Liang, “Hybrid three phase load flow,” IEE Proceedings—C, Vol. 137, No. 3, pp. 177–185, May 1990.
  A. H. El-Abiad and D. C. Tarisi, “Load-flow solution of untransposed EHV network”, PICA, Pittsburgh, pp. 377-384, 1967.
  R. G. Wasley and M. A. Slash, “Newton-Raphson algorithm for three-phase load flow”, Proc. IEE, Vol. 121, No. 7, pp.630-638, July 1974.
 Tsai-Hsiang Chen and Wen-Chih Yang “Analysis of multi-grounded systems considering the neutral grounding,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 16, No. 4, October 2001.
 Nelson, J. P, “The grounding of power systems above 600 volts: a practical view point”, IEEE Industry Applications Society 50th Annual, Sept 15-17, 2003.
 Chang, G. W.; Chiu, M. J.; Lee, K. S.; Hsu, Y. F, “Analysis of high neutral current in three-phase four-wire multi-grounded distribution feeders”, Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition, 2003 IEEE PES, Vol. 2, 2003, pp.531–535, Sept 7-12.