# Frequency control of load in island microgrid by using the model pridictive control (MPC)

### Abstract

One of the most important issues of the microgrid in the form of seperation from network is power, the frequency and voltage control. In this paper, a control-based method of model pridictive control is presented for control of load frequency in the microgrid network. The proposed controller is located in the second frequency control loop and, by applying the control signal to the sources, the frequency disturbances are mimicd after the power changes in the microgrid. The simulation results in the MATLAB / Simulink environment show that the proposed controller has a better performance in comparison with the proportional-integral controller based on Zigler-Nicoles based PI (ZN-PI), proportional-integral controller based on fuzzy logic,(Fuzzy-PI), proportional-derivative-integral controller of fractional times base on Canonical Particle Swarm Optimization based Proportional Integral differential (CPSO-PID) and proportional-derivative-integral controller based on optimal particle algorithm, so that 1) frequency fluctuations decreases in terms of the oscillation range and its number effectively; 2) it is more resistant than the certainty of the microgrid parameters; and has better function in the parameters change to the other one.

### References

[2] F. Habibi, A. H. Naghshbandy, H. Bevrani, “Robust voltage controller design for an isolated microgrid using Kharitonov’s theorem and Dstability concept”, Int. J. of Electrical Power & Energy System, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 656-665, Jan. 2013.

[3] S.K. Pandey, S.R. Mohanty and N. Kishor, “A literature survey on load–frequency control for conventional and distribution generation power systems”, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 25, pp. 318-334, 2013.

[4] C. Chowdhury, S. P. chowdhury, and P. Crossley, “Microgrids and Active Distribution Networks”,

the Institution of Engineering and Technology”, London, 2009.

[5] A.R. Teel, A. Subbaraman, A. Sferlazza, “Stability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems: A survey”, Automatica, Vol. 50, pp. 2435–2456, 2014.

[6] A.M. Bouzid, J.M. Guerrero, A. Cheriti, et al., “A survey on control of electric power distributed generation systems for microgrid applications”, Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol. 44, pp. 751- 766, 2015.

[7] R. Dhanalakshmi, S. Palaniswami, “Load frequency control of wind diesel hydro hybrid power system using conventional PI controller”, European J. Scient. Res., Vol. 60, No. 4, pp. 630- 641, 2011.

[8] P.K. Ray, S.R. Mohanty, N. Kishor, “Proportionalintegral controller based small-signal analysis of hybrid distributed generation systems”, Energy Conver. Manage., Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 1943-1954, 2011.

[9] G. Mallesham, S. Mishra, S. Member, A.N. Jha, “Ziegler-Nichols based controller parameters tuning for load frequency control in a microgrid”, International Conference on Energy, Automation, and Signal, Odisha, pp. 1–8, 28-30 Dec. 2011,

[10] I. Pan, S. Das, “Fractional order AGC for distributed energy resources using robust optimization”, IEEE Trans.Smart Grid, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp. 2175-2186, Sept. 2015.

[11] K. Masui and T. Namerikawa, “Load frequency control of a microgrid based on H∞ control considering response speed of generators”, 54th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), Osaka, pp. 5895-5902, 2015.

[12] Singh, V.P., Mohanty, S.R., Kishor, N., Ray, P.K., “Robust H-infinity load frequency control in hybrid distributed generation system”, Int J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., Vol. 46, pp. 294-305, 2013.

[13] S. M. Azizi and S. A. Khajehoddin, “Robust load frequency control in islanded microgrid systems using μ-synthesis and D-K iteration, 2016 Annual IEEE Systems Conference (SysCon), Orlando, FL,

pp. 1-8, 2016.

[14] X. Huang, Z. Wang, J. Jiang, “Control and loaddispatching strategies for a microgrid with a DC/AC inverter of fixed frequency”, Electrical power and Energy Systems, Vol. 43, pp. 1127- 1136, 2012.

[15] Q. Shafiee, J. M. Guerrero, and J. C. Vasquez, “Distributed Secondary control for Islanded Microgrid – A novel approach”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 1018-1031. 2014.

[16] A. Elrayyah; F. Cingoz; Y. Sozer, “Smart Loads Management Using Droop-Based Control in Integrated Microgrid Systems”, to be appeared in IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, DOI: 10.1109/JESTPE.2017.2666786.

[17] F. Cingoz, A. Elrayyah and Y. Sozer, “Plug-and- Play nonlinear droop construction scheme to optimize islanded microgrid operations”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 2743-2756, April 2017.

[18] R. Rana; M. Singh; S. Mishra, “Design of modified droop controller for frequency support in microgrid using fleet of electric vehicles”, to be appeared in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, doi: 10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2651906.

[19] C. Mu, Y. Tang and H. He, “Observer-based sliding mode frequency control for micro-grid with photovoltaic energy integration”, 2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), Boston, pp. 1-5, 2016.

[20] D.C. Das, A.K. Roy, N. Sinha, “GA based frequency controller for solar thermal–diesel–wind hybrid energy generation/energy storage system”, Int J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 262–279, 2012.

[21] S.K. Pandey, S.R. Mohanty, N. Kishor, J.P.S. Catalão, “Frequency regulation in hybrid power systems using particle swarm optimization and linear matrix inequalities based robust controller design”, Int J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., Vol. 63, pp. 887–900, 2014.

[22] A. A. El-Fergany and M. A. El-Hameed, “Efficient frequency controllers for autonomous two-area hybrid microgrid system using socialspider optimiser”, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 637-648, 2017.

[23] R.H. Kumar, S. Ushakumari, “Biogeographybased Tuning of PID controllers for load frequency control in microgrid”, 2014 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies [ICCPCT], Nagercoil, pp. 797-802, 2014.

[24] G. Shankar, V. Mukherjee, “Load frequency control of an autonomous hybrid power system by quasi-oppositional harmony search algorithm”, Int J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., Vol. 78, pp. 715– 734, 2016.

[25] H. Bevrani, F. Habibi, P. Babahajyani, M. Watanabe and Y. Mitani, “Intelligent frequency control in an ac microgrid: online pso-based fuzzy tuning approach”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 1935-1944, Dec. 2012.

[26] M. H. Khooban, T. Niknam, F. Blaabjerg, P. Davari, and T. Dragicevic, “A robust adaptive load frequency control for micro-grids.” ISA Transactions, Vol. 65, pp. 220-229, 2016.

[27] M. H. Khooban, T. Niknam, F. Blaabjerg, P. Davari, and T. Dragicevic, “A new load frequency control strategy for micro-grids with considering electrical vehicles”, Electric Power Systems Research, Vol. 143, pp. 585-598, 2017.

[28] P. F .Frack , E. Pedro, E.H. Watanabe, R. W. Doncker and S. Hanno, “Control strategy design for frequency control in automous smart microgrids”, Procedings of the 5th IEEE International Symposium on power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems, pp .1-8 . 2014.

[29] F. S. Tidjani, A. Hamadi, A. Chandra, P. Pillay and A. Ndtoungou, “Optimization of standalone microgrid considering active damping technique and smart power management using fuzzy logic supervisor”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 475-484, Jan. 2017.

[30] EF. Camacho, CB. Alba, “Model predictive control”, Springer Science & Business Media; 2013.

[31] A. Parisio, E. Rikos, G. Tzamalis, L. Glielmo, “Use of model predictive control for experimental microgrid optimization”, Applied Energy. Vol. 115, pp. 37-46, 2014.

[32] A. K. Verma, H. B. Gooi, A. Ukil, N. R. Tummuru and S. K. Kollimalla, “Microgrid frequency stabilization using model predictive controller, “2016 IEEE PES Transmission & Distribution Conference and Exposition-Latin America (PES T&D-LA), Morelia, pp. 1-6, 2016.

[33] S. Raimondi Cominesi, M. Farina, L. Giulioni, B. Picasso and R. Scattolini, “A two-layer stochastic model predictive control scheme for microgrids”, to be appeared in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, DOI: 10.1109/TCST.2017.2657606.

[34] J. Pahasa and I. Ngamroo, “PHEVs bidirectional charging/discharging and soc control for microgrid frequency stabilization using multiple mpc”, IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 526-533, March 2015.

[35] J. Pahasa and I. Ngamroo, “Coordinated Control of Wind Turbine Blade Pitch Angle and PHEVs Using MPCs for Load Frequency Control of Microgrid”, IEEE Systems Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 97-105, March 2016.

[36] J. Pecas Lopes, A. Moreira, and A. G. Madureira”, Defining control strategies for microgrids islanded operation”, IEEE Trans. on power Systems, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 919-920, May 2006.